Mod-04 Lec-12 The Yoga Philosophy – II

Mod-04 Lec-12 The Yoga Philosophy – II


Welcome viewers to this session. In this session, we will be continuing with
the Yoga philosophy. Many of the concepts that we have discussed
in the previous classes on Yoga system. So, I will like to remind you in very brief,
so that, it will help you to recapitulate, what we have discussed in the last class,
on Yoga philosophy. As you know that, yoga and S?mkhya, these
two systems consist of one pair. S?mkhya is a theoretical approach, gives a
theoretical approach about liberation, about some of the concepts, whereas in Yoga philosophy,
you find it is a practical aspect. Therefore, in Vedanta, and also in some other
scriptures, you find that, there is a text written stating that, S?mkhya and yoga, the
theoretical and practical aspect of some issues, or a particular issue. They said that, if S?mkhya is describing something
on some issue and yoga talks about the same thing in a practical standpoint. So, therefore, you find, S?mkhya and yoga,
many times you have a crisscrossing references, whenever they are discussing on some of the
concept. For example, liberation; for example, how
to eradicate from the sufferings; for example, what are the ultimate nature of reality and
many more things. To identify a soul, to identify a self, to
describe a self, everything you find, both in S?mkhya as well as yoga. We also discussed in the last class that,
what are the differences between S?mkhya philosophy and Yoga philosophy. While bringing the differences, we said that,
S?mkhya accept the plurality of selves; however, yoga accepts or confirms that, only one and
one Purusa or one and only one God. S?mkhya said that, there are not only one
Purusa, but also there are different Purusa or many Purusas; however, yoga rejects this
concept and said that, we believe only one and only one Purusa known as God. Further, also, if you remember, we have discussed
the stages of yoga. We also said that, the psychology aspect of
Yoga philosophy and we also discussed that, how citta is a practical aspect or a practical
component of Yoga philosophy. We said that, citta means the three elements
put together. One is intellect or buddhi; another is mind
or m?nas; the third one is ego and ahamk?ra. These three elements constitute the citta. We have also discussed the stages of citta,
that how citta gets as a different stages and each stage, how it differs from other
stages. We also said that, citta, in citta, we find
these three gunas, that is, sattva, rajas and tamas. Now, in this class, we will discuss that,
how these sattva, rajas and tamas gunas, these three gunas of Prakruti, described in S?mkhya
philosophy and how the same thing, that sattva, rajas, tamas gunas helps the citta to occupy
in a different form. So, this class, we will be discussing the
forms of citta. After that, we will be discussing that, how
citta get modifies. Citta never remains as same; because, as you
know that, this Purusa and Prakruti, once they comes close together, the tranquility
of three gunas that you find in the Prakruti, gets vibrates. Henceforth, there are different objects, creates
and produced in this earth and Purusa is the only, only eternal being or super conscious
being, who is enjoying all the products. And therefore, Prakruti also responsible,
to design the different product, for different purposes. Therefore, in Yoga philosophy, we will be
discussing that, how this citta get modifies; how this sattva, rajas, tamas gunas also get
modify, so that, we find different objects in this world. In addition to that, we will be discussing
in this class that, how many kleshas are there in this earth. kleshas means dukkha — means suffering. That human beings, once they born, they are
free from everything, but once they are grow, they are associating, they are attaching and
they are relating with each and everyone, some, in some or other form. Therefore, suffering is obvious in earthly
life. Now, we will discuss, in this class that,
how Yoga philosophy prescribes that, once if tries to free from all these suffering,
what sort of practice, he or she suppose to do; what sort of klesas, dukkha or suffering
found in this earth and how one should understand, these kinds of sufferings; and how one suffering
is different from others; and what are the measures we have to take, so that, we will
be detached from all kind of sufferings and also miseries; henceforth, our life, will
be a peaceful life and even in this present life, we will get the liberation. As S?mkhya said that, there are two kinds
of liberation Jivanmukti and Videhamukti. Jivanmukti is, is that kind of liberation,
where an individual, having a life, whether it is a animal, whether it is a reptiles,
anyone, an individual having a life in this earth, can also get liberated by practicing
so and so. And also, they said that, S?mkhya philosophy
said that, there is another kind of liberation known as Videhamukti. They said that, Videhamukti means, after the
death of a body, nothing is retained; nothing is remains; neither body, nor the atman. So, in that type, the body has a, has a gross
body and the self, which is an subtle element, also not remain in that particular body; that
body, where that soul, that is a spirit or the body was inactive form, was there earlier. Therefore, they said that, after death we
will get also liberation; that is known as Videhamukti. In the same form, yoga said that, there are
some practices we should do therefore an individual can also get liberation in this earthly life. By fully knowing that, the human beings are
associating or relating with different individual and different objects, for different reasons
and different purposes. Yoga philosophy, the same way or the similar
fashion, prescribes that, an individual can get liberations in this earthly life by doing
some kind of yoga or practices. That we will be discussing. Further, they said that, there are also chances
to get pure liberation when an individual dies. Now, all these things in together, we will
be discussing in today class. Now, focusing on the forms of citta, as I
said that, forms of citta, we will be discussing now. If you, if you could able to remember that,
we have discussed, what is citta and the components of citta. There I said, citta constituted with three
elements. One is, one is ego or ahamk?ra; another is
mind or m?nas and another is intellect or buddhi. These three products together constitute citta. He said that, citta also having three gunas
like Prakruti. These three gunas are sattva, rajas and tamas. Sattva is white. Rajas is an active form and tamas is a dull
form or a very lazy or its colour is black; that means, it is a heaviness. So, these three kinds of guna you find in
citta also. Further, they said that, this dominance of
one guna in a product, in an object. Therefore… Suppose, you find there is a product; in that
product, you find one guna dominates the other two gunas; suppose in a chair, in a chair
you find, tamas guna dominates sattva and rajas; because until unless you move the chair,
chair is not moving. However, if you see a mirror, you can see
your image back; the mirror reflects your image; that means, it is a sattva guna, which
is dominates rajas and tamas. If you see that, a vehicle is moving or you
are running or you are walking; that means, something is a, in, on motion; that means,
here rajas is a guna and its attributes is active; there rajas guna dominates sattva
and tamas. Henceforth, you find different objects, different
actions and different products have a different gunas. And, out of these three gunas, one guna tries
to dominate other two gunas. Therefore, different objects you find in this
earth, for different purposes. They said that, also, that in citta, we find
three gunas and also the cases that, one guna tries to dominate other two gunas. Henceforth, different forms, we will get of
citta. Citta receives different forms, because of
three gunas are trying to dominate; one, three gunas tries to dominate each other or among
these three gunas, one tries to dominates other two. So, now, let us discuss, what are the forms
of citta. They said that, since there are three forms
of citta, we find three forms of citta, because, the dominance of nature of one guna on others. These three forms of citta is known as Prakhya,
Pravrutti and Sthiti. Now, let us discuss, what are these three
forms of citta. They said that, in Prakhya, sattva guna is
dominating; however, you find tamas guna remains as subordinate to sattva; that means, something
is very clear enough, tamas also tries to subordinate to that; tamas also tries to be
associate with sattva guna. In this case, citta aspires for different
powers of yoga. While somebody is doing some yoga and practices,
you find that, they will be achieving something; at least, they will be able to concentrate
their mind. In other form, they can able to control their
sense organs; they can be able to concentrate on a particular object, though the mind fluctuates
from one to another; some siddhi they will get it, is known as animas. That means, siddhi means, once you get something,
you have a control on something, that is siddhi. Though, your mind will be associating with
a different objects differently or your mind is focusing on one point; however, immediately
switch over to another point, it is because of this forms, where sattva dominates and
tamas associates, you able to concentrate on a particular object for a limited time. They said that, also, further, so, because
of these forms, citta able to receives many information on a particular object and able
to identify a particular object as it is. If you not able to concentrate on a object,
how can you identify its features. As a result, you could not, if you could not
able to identify a features of an object, you could not able to recognize that object
even as it is. And henceforth, you many times commit a mistake
by stating that, this subject is not that. Sometimes we find that, that is there is a
rope will be lying on the road and you claim that it is a snake; because, when I am, when
we are seeing the rope, because of the same characteristic of rope and snakes, we think
that, this is not a rope, but a snakes. HHHowever, in this kind of form, citta helps
you to identify what exactly the nature of the object, as it is. As a result, you could able to identify the
object as it is, with its nature, with its attributes. The second point is known as Pravrutti. There, in case of Pravrutti, you find that,
rajas is dominating the sattva and tamas; however, the tamas guna is becomes very weak,
but it appears. And, this form appears to be enlightened;
that means, in this case, in this case of citta, when citta receives this kind of form,
here, what happens, this rajas guna is an active; rajas is an active; so, rajas guna
tries to dominate tamas and sattva. But further, they said that, tamas guna is
not completely dominated. Somehow other, it appears or associate with
rajas. Therefore, you find a different form. And in this forms, citta able to achieve something;
that is dhy?na or dh?rn?; that means, if you go for a fasting, for one or two, one days,
two days, three days; that means, your stomach always needs to fulfill by eating some of
these fruits, vegetables, what is it able, but in the same time, since you able to concentrate
by your yoga practice, you can able to sit for a longer time, dhy?na or dh?rn?. You might be seeing that, many people go for
a dh?rn?, see hunger strike. They are able to do for a longer time. It is just because, they can able to concentrate
on a particular task. However, they can also feel hungry while doing
this hunger strike, but they protect from the foods, stating that, we are not going
to eat. Therefore, many times, you find that, after
one or two day hungry, many people hospitalized. So, it is, it is in that time, this cittas
receives this form. So, as a result, we have a dhy?na. A rishi can constantly sit for doing a dhy?na,
for a longer time. We as a ordinary being, can have a dh?rn?
for one or two days for some reasons. It is in that time, citta receives this form. Now, coming to the third, there is an another
form, citta also receives, known as Sthiti. In this case, sattva is dominated; the citta
is predominated by sattva or sattva dominates the other two gunas rajas and tamas; however,
Yoga system says that, that rajas is not completely dominating; rajas, while dominating, also
try to subordinate sattva. In this form you find that, the citta conceive
its own form and try to differentiate from others; that means, in this form, the form
of the last one as we have discussed, where sattva is dominating other two; however, rajas
is subordinating sattva. In this case, you find that, citta will be
getting a different form altogether. In that form, the citta try to differentiate
from others, because, it is a different form of citta. Being living in this earth, your existence,
you feel not like in this earthly life; that means, after constant practice of yoga, somebody
may have find that, he or she not walking in this earthly life; something above that. This spirit makes you to feel that, you are
not like an ordinary being; because, you are not attaching with any of the objects; for
your passion, for your cravings; for your life, luxury life. He is saying that, because of this form, citta
able to discriminate; that means, you find, as a human being, exceptional from others;
that means, whatever you able to gain, whatever knowledge you can infer, that other beings
cannot be inferred. That kind of, that kind of human beings, after
doing some kind of yoga practice can also be reach to that stage. Henceforth, they said that, any human being
reach to that stage, in that time, the citta receives the form, the last form, where sattva
is dominating these two, rajas and tamas; however, rajas tries to subordinate sattva. So, these are three forms of citta, we have
discussed now. Now, we will see that, that the modification
of citta. Why at all citta needs to modifies; and once
it will modify, what are things citta receives further. For example, if you try to modify yourself,
you can also gain many things; if you try and modify further, you can also learn many
more things. Somebody is designing some power point; if
he or she tries to modify it further, then, it can be more sharper and more wisely it
can be created. If you read some passages, if you further
also modify the passage, that means, after reading that passage if you write something
on your notebook, whatever you have understood, further if you can modify that writing, you
will find in a stage where your writing will be very good one, in comparison with the earlier
one. Therefore, whenever there is a modification,
it results a different steps, different forms. Now, the question arises, why at all citta
needs a modification? If at all citta needs modification, what kind
of modification citta has? And, at all citta modifies, what are the forms
citta is occuping? Now, let us discuss the modification of citta. As I said that, sattva, rajas, tamas, these
three gunas are find in citta; and citta associate with a different objects differently, because,
each gunas tries to dominate other two gunas; henceforth, each object, each human beings
is unique from others. You find that, there are in many cases, twins;
however, though they appear as a same, but they behave certainly different. As a result, you could able to identify x
is different from y, though x and y are twins; because, the three gunas, somehow or other,
differentiates or try to dominate others, in a different proportional. As a result, you find that, everyone has its
own unique features. As a result, we identify the object or an
individual in a unique name. We never say that, chair is a table or table
is a desk or desk is a computer, we never say. We able to discriminate and also demarcate
saying that, table cannot be a chair, table is different from chair; the attribute of
table is different from the attribute of chair; the attribute of a human being is different
from the attribute of an animal; the attribute of an animal is different from the attribute
of a bird or a insects or reptiles. So, therefore, the modification of citta involved
in different life differently. Henceforth, we identify an individual is a
unique and differing from others. Now, let us discuss. The citta gets modify or changed and acquires
the consciousness due to the reflection of the Purusa or the self. As I said, in S?mkhya philosophy also, it
was described in this form. When S?mkhya philosophy claims that, there
are many Purusas, there is not only one Purusa, what they said, what they mean is that, there
is only one Purusa, which is a, which eternal and pure consciousness, but inactive. But while creation happens, different products
created in this earth, the Prakruti, being a matter or the real cause, try to associate,
relate with Purusa; their connection, they are just coming closer with each other, Purusa
and Prakruti. The some part of consciousness of Purusa,
this spirit form or a force form, find in all of this life that we are having in this
earth; that means, when Purusa Prakruti comes together, Prakruti being a matter and Purusa
being the consciousness, they comes close together and henceforth, one product created. And if that product has a life, or able to
take breath, then some part of consciousness derives from Purusa; however, once the product
created, Purusa dissociated from that product. So, therefore, you find different animals,
different human beings and also different other creatures in this earth. In the same fashion, Yoga philosophy prescribes
that, the self that we have, and the self seeking for the liberation, the self suffers
because, we think that, we are an individual and citta makes us to, citta makes us to understand
that, we have a ego, we have ahamk?ra and we have intellect. Though, whatever we have the self or a life,
it is derived from the pure consciousness or Purusa, but still, since Purusa is dissociated
from this life, but we cannot directly see the Purusa; we said that, we are one of the
jiva. Therefore, we have a ego, we have a intellect
and because of the ego, we think that, we are the Purusa, one among the other Purusas. But which is not the case. They are also given an example, like, everyone
see that moon and whenever they will walk on the road, they think that, moon is walking
with them. But this is not so; it is because of ignorance,
we think that moon is walking with us in the night. And every human also feels in the same way;
however, this is not true. Moon is one, because of, because of some part
of moon, this power or force, we think that, we moves, as well as moon also moves. Keeping in this mind, they said that, modification
of citta also happen in the same form. Because, when the jiva or the soul receives
for an object or used for a different purpose or engage in different actions, citta also
get modifies; citta receives in a different forms. Therefore, they said that, though the citta
modifies, changes and acquires consciousness due to the reflection of Purusa’s self,
however, the real nature of citta is an material, because the citta itself comes from the matter,
is known as Prakruti. Prakruti is a material, but is a unconsciousness;
however, since it is association or receive some kind of power from the Purusa, it receive
some consciousness or receive some life. Therefore, citta is material, when the product
of Prakruti find in citta and it is, it is also having life or it is known as self. Citta also is a self, only when it realizes
that, some part of consciousness lies in citta, in the form of self. So, therefore, citta, in one hand is material,
and another hand, is said that, having self, therefore, consciousness. The changes in citta, any changes you find
in citta, are known as modification of Vruttis. There are five modifications found in citta. Now, let us discuss, what are the five modifications. Now, the five modifications are Pramana, Viparyaya,
Vikalpa, Nidra and Smrti. Pramana means, it is a valid knowledge or
the right cognition. Viparyaya means, sometimes, it is understood
as doubt or wrong cognition. The third one, vikalpa is known as imagination;
that means, since we have a self and our product is from Prakruti, we would able to imagine
something; the self is receive some consciousness and this consciousness engaged in the yoga
actions or yoga practices. Henceforth, we could able to imagine something
very concretely. And many times we imagine, which is very abstract;
but it, yoga helps us to imagine something or to have a inferential knowledge about some
object in a little bit concrete form. The third, the fourth one, they said that
nidra; that means, whenever we sleep also, we receive some kind of information; the citta
also modifies in that time. And the last one, they said that, smrti or
memory. When the memory also functions, citta also
get modifies. Many cases you find that, you mistakenly identify
someone as a different person; however, whenever you interact with him by reaching to him or
her, you find that, whatever you thought about him or her, that person is not that person,
to whom you are meeting. In that time, citta also modifies. Now, let us discuss, in a very detail way,
what are these five. What are the five kinds of citta, when it
modifies. Now, first one is Pramana. As I said, Yoga school like S?mkhya, they
adheres to the three kind of Pramana. Praman means the valid source of knowledge. The first one is that perception. Any knowledge that you receives by seeing
an object; seeing object means, the five sense organs associate with that object, or interact
with that object, or attached with that object; that any knowledge you get through five sense
organs, Yoga philosophy considers as a perception. They also considered that, whatever mind receives
or whatever mind infer, intuitive knowledge also a valid knowledge. Because, for them, perceptions can be done
through five sense organs as well as the six sense organs known as mind. Therefore, they said that, any knowledge that
we receive through perception, that can be a valid Pramana. Secondly, they said that, inferential knowledge
can be a valid Pramana; that means, any knowledge that you received by inferring something,
that can be valid knowledge. And further, they said that, like S?mkhya
philosophy, they said that, verbal testimony can be a source of right knowledge or valid
knowledge. And, you know what is mean by perception,
what is mean by inference and what are the components required to have an inference. As I said that, inference, to have an inference,
we need three components; that means, major term, minor term and middle term. Major term means the major premise; minor
term means the minor premise and the last premise is known as conclusion. In the conclusion, you find major term and
minor term; however, the middle term is connecting the major premise and minor premise. Therefore, at least three propositions we
require to have an inference. Further, they said that, inference is a concomitance
relation; is an concomitance universal, invariable, relation between hetu and sadhya; hetu is
a middle term and sadhya is the major term. So, between middle term and major term, there
should be concomitance, universal and invariable relation should be find, then only, inference
will be correct one or a valid one. The same thing prescribed by Yoga philosophy. Further, if you said that verbal testimony,
they said that, the testimony that we receive in a verbal form, can also be considered as
a valid knowledge. Now, let us discuss in a brief that, how really
they have discussed about it. When I said brief, means we are not going
to elaborate very elastically; brief means, whatever is required, we will be discussing
on it. They said that, in the case of perception,
the citta, through sense organs, both external as well as the internal, internal here is
a mind, comes into contact with external objects of the world and assumes its form. That means, whenever the sense organs comes
to contact with the physical object, let us say, now, I can touch to the towel and I feel
the hardness. Now, I can touch to the water and can claim
that, it is a liquid. I can see that, there are gases. They are further said that, any knowledge
that you received through the sense organs, that will be a valid knowledge. And, this five sense organs contacting with
any of the object, and you receive the knowledge about that object, can be considered as a
valid knowledge about that object. This is about the perception, Yoga philosophy
claims. They said that, in case of inferences, the
citta recognizes the generic nature of objects and this is equally applicable to verbal testimony
also. What is the generic nature? I will give an example, so that, it will help
you to understand what is the generic nature. Yoga philosophy claims that, inferential knowledge,
but they said that, to have an inferential knowledge, we must know the general nature
of it; that means, the uniformity should be maintained all the times. For example, a person sees a smoke in the
distant hill and claim that, there might be a fire over there. What yoga philosophy claims that, if that
person has seen that, wherever there is a smoke, there is a fire, in example like kitchen
you have seen there is smoke, there is a fire; in candle, there is a smoke and there is a
fire; in lamp, there is a smoke and there is fire. Therefore, the person which claiming that,
by seeing a smoke in a distance hill, there is a fire, he or she must know that, this
fire and smoke must be associated in all the circumstances. So, therefore, there should be generality
of the nature, in a cause effect form should found. Then only, we able to claim something inferentially. And that claiming, on that inferential knowledge,
should be valid only when, the generality feature will be find. If any of the situation, if that person finds
that, the smoke and fire is not related with each other, or just have see the smoke without
fire, or have seen the fire without smoke, then, he or she, if claims that, that wherever
there is a smoke there is a fire, then it is not a valid inference. Therefore, they said, they given an example
like, you see crow x is black; crow y is black; crow z is black. Therefore, in all the situations, circumstances,
if any crow will come as a bird, that bird will be black. So, therefore, the generality of nature should
be maintained in a uniform form, with a uniformity. This is meant by Yoga philosophy. Further, when they said that, verbal testimony,
they said that, the testimony we receives can be consider as a verbal testimony; however,
one person should know that, who is to be reliable and whose utterances can be entertained,
to be considered as a valid knowledge. For example, if a person wants to cross the
river, now, he is standing in the bank of the river and finds three persons; one is
the fisherman; another is a person standing with a bicycles; another person just enjoying
the nature, wearing a good dress. In that case, immediately, the person who
wants to cross the river will ask about the river, the water of the river, or the depth
of the river, with the fisherman; but certainly, not by the other two persons, though, these
two other persons may have some knowledge about the rivers’ water as well as the depth
of the river. However, the person will consider the knowledge
about the river as a valid knowledge, based on whatever the fisherman will speak about
the river or the depth of the river. So, therefore, the person who wants to cross
the river can identify with the reliable person and whether his or her utterances on a certain
fact or an issue will be considered as a valid or not. So, in this way, there are three kinds of
pramana accepted by Yoga philosophy and citta also helps to receive the knowledge about
the object, through these are the means. Now, moving further, we will be discussing
that Viparyaya. Viparyaya means doubt. When doubt arises, when we are, when we are
not sure about a particular object, then doubt arises. Now, we will see, what, in that time how citta
modifies and how citta receives the form, when there is a doubt. Here I said, the expression viparyaya is understood
as doubt. To possess indeterminate, indeterminate knowledge
of an object is known as doubt. That means, whenever we identify an object,
we cannot determine its particular nature. We always in a confusion, this may be, this
could be, this could be called another object; or this is not the same thing that we are
able to identify. Henceforth, we are in a doubt. They said that, viparyaya arise, when we are
doubting on a particular object, we are not able to identify an object as it is, or we
are not able to sure about an certain issue. For example, seeing an object, I am not able
to recognize whether it is a shell or a silver. This really resulted in doubt. And in that time also, citta modifies. Because, citta is not able to help you or
guide you, to identify a particular object. Because, in that time, may be citta, either
in the, in citta, tamas guna may be dominating, say rajas and sattva. As a result, you are not able to really identify. Or in many cases, rajas guna may be dominating
sattva and tamas; because, rajas, since involved in activity, your mind will be moving so fast,
that, you may be omitting many of this attribute of that object. As a result, you could not able to identify
that object as it is. So, here also, citta get modifies. Now, further, you find vikalpa. Vikalpa is an imagination, as you have discussed. It is the knowledge in which, the object is
known, but the object does not exist; that means, you imagine many things in the life,
but certainly, all the imagination does not exist. For example, you imagine that, there is a
milk sea; because, you know what is milk and you know what is sea. Now, it helps you, now in the mind, you can
also think of some river, which can color is white. So, therefore, you can call that sea as a
milk sea. Therefore, Yoga philosophy claim that, we,
the human being, can imagine and it help, and citta helps us to imagine also; however,
all the imagination need not to be exist in a particular form. We cannot identify that, this is a milk sea;
however, we can get a form or a shape or understanding of a milk sea. And here also, citta involved to imagine certain
things. They further said that, this imagination treated
as merely a verbal cognition; that means, whenever I say milk sea, it is understood,
but I cannot refer to an, refer to a sea or a river saying that, see there are so much
water and now, this is a milk sea. Another example they have given stating that,
barren women’s child. When I say that, barren women’s child, you
can understand; that means, a barren women cannot produce a child; cannot give birth
to a child; however, the concept, the imagination can be understood. Because, it is an utterance; that is, I uttered
and explain; henceforth, you understand. So, therefore, in this imagination also, citta
modifies. This is known as vikalpa. Now, the another state is smrti. In memory or smrti, smrti is known as memory,
where the citta helps to recapitulate or recollects some of the past experience that we had. Because, some of those, in past experiences,
our impressions lie on that particular fact or a particular object. I am repeating, when you are able to recapitulate
some of the information, what happens is that, this recapitulation is possible through our
impressions that we left on the object while cognized. I will give an example which will help you
to understand. For example, you have seen a tree so long
back. You have seen a tree, in a particular place
long back. Now, after few years, you could able to recognize
that tree and claim that, ‘oh, I have seen that tree long back’; that means, when you
are seen that tree in the past, your impression found on that object very categorically or
you determined that object in a particular form. In that time, citta helps you to identify
that object as it is. Once you identify that object as it is, some
kind of impression left in your mind. And this is, this is returns in citta and
whenever that issue pops up about that tree, you could able to recapitulate that information. And it is because of citta modification, you
could able to identify that tree as it is, when you had seen in a long back. Further, there are many cases also, we may
not able to recapitulate many of the information. That, in that case, Yoga philosophy claim
that, whenever you identify on that object in that past, your impression may not be that
strong one. Therefore, this is not retained in the citta
and though citta is striving to get that information, could not able to retrieve all the information. Hence, in imagination, even in doubt, even
in smrti, citta really operates. Another example I will give. Suppose, in the dream, suppose in the night,
you slept and you had a nice dream. In the morning you get up and say that, I
had a so and so dream. How you able to recapitulate all the information? You are in the subconscious stage, when you
are slept. Here, Yoga philosophy prescribes that, it
is because of citta you are able to recapitulate some of the information. Otherwise, in the slept, whatever you had
seen in the dream form, you are not able to recapitulate. So, therefore, citta also modify when somebody
slept. Now, the last we will be discussing Nidra. Nidra is a mental modification where there
will be no cognition; it is the knowledge of the absence of objects. In this stage, the citta is predominated by
tamas, because, you have a dream, you have a dreamless sleep, many times. But however, this stage would not be ignored
the mild presence of knowledge while somebody is in sleep. This is so because, after waking up from sleep,
the person has consciousness that, he had a slept well and knew nothing. Therefore, some sort of modifications are
occurred even in sleep. An extreme case can be given an example. For example, in the night you slept and you
had not any sleep. You had not have any dreams in the night,
right. But in the morning, when you get up, when
you find in the conscious form, you said that, or you find that, “oh my God, in the last
night, I had, I had a dog sleep; I did not even remember anything in my slept’; that
means, though it was in a subconscious stage, citta modifies. Otherwise, how can you say that, the last
night you had a dog sleep; or you slept such a, such a deep manner that, you could not
able to recapitulate what happened in the last night. Though many things was happening in and around
in your bed or in that room. Therefore, it is said that, citta also modifies
when somebody is in deep sleep. In this way, you find citta also helps the
human being to identify different objects differently for different purposes. And also, citta always attached with a human
beings. It is find in the self. We, the human being, have a self, and it is,
if the self guides the citta, to identify a different object, differently. This is the way that Yoga philosophy describes
about the modification of citta. Now, as I said that, we, the human beings
associating with different objects differently, because, different objects fulfill the different
purposes for us. Since there are several causes responsible
for the disturbances in citta, citta never find in a tranquility position. Because, we, the human beings, the self guides
the citta to attach the different object differently. Hence, it never in a state of tranquility;
rather it get disturbs; it modifies even in each movement; among those, a fewer attachment
with objects of the world, cognizing the objects wrongly, inactivity, doubt, carelessness;
all these help, where citta modifies differently. When you attach to a chair, your citta modify
differently, because, citta helps you to identify that object is a chair. When you, when your citta is associated with
a computer, you identify that object is a computer. And, it is different from chair. So, therefore, in every case, citta modify. When you cognize some object differently,
which is not its nature or you are missed many of the attributes of that object and
identify mistakenly, there also citta modifies. Therefore, you saying that, we all suffers
because of the citta and it is the self, it is the ignorant self, guides the citta to
modifies every moment. Because, it is the self, which helps us to
identify the object, by the help of citta. Therefore, we suffer and the human being really
suffers and gets different kind of pain in this earthy life. Now, Yoga philosophy claims, how to eradicate
from all these suffering; how to know that, we are ignorant; how to stuff the actions
which are not good; what practice one should do, so that, can refrain from all the sufferings;
can able to guide the citta to live in a very tranquility position, not always disturbing. Now, all these, we will discuss now. These causes, the causes as I said, we are
attaching to the different objects differently, we cognize a objects also mistaken, as not
with its nature; we cognize a object differently. Also, we involved in different inactivity. We doubt many things, because you are not
certain about certain, we are not sure about certain objects. And these, all these helps the citta to disturbs. So, therefore, they said that, these are the
causes arise because citta imagines itself as the agent and the enjoyer, because, Purusa’s
reflection on it. Citta does all these because of the self and
citta and self, both together, thinks that, they are having life, because they are consciousness. They forget to know that, this consciousness,
if very little person derives from the Purusa. And this is the, this is the true ignorance
and this is the ground of the ignorance where human beings or the life in this earthly life
gets suffer. Even in a ant, even in a bird, even in a reptile
also suffers, because of this ego and ahamk?ra. Thus, they said that, we find the earthly
suffering known as klesas. Klesas are of five types. One is avidy? (ignorance); another is asmita (egoism); third
one is r?ga or attachment; fourth one is dwesa or aversion; then, abhinivesa; that means,
clinging or attaching for a long life and fear of death. Now, let us discuss all these components. Here they said that, avidy? arises, when we cognizing the self as non-eternal
and material; that means, we are ignorant; we think that, the self is an eternal always;
and it is a pure consciousness; it has nothing do with material object; once the human body
dies, it receives in a different body. It is not the case. This is not the case. Self has neither beginning nor end. It is avidy?, because of avidy?, we think
that, self is eternal; however, self is not eternal. Self derives from the Purusa. If Purusa want, self can ceases to exist. Therefore, it is our ignorance or ego helps
us to identify or cognize the self as non-eternal; the life, the life of us is an eternal, but
which is not the case. Therefore, we must, by the yoga practice,
consider that, the self is an eternal one; the self which is a pure consciousness; the
Purusa or the God, it is a pure consciousness; it is an eternal one. And the life that we are having is a non-eternal
one. One must make a distinction between material
and spiritual. One should find a distinction between self
and the body. Then only, some kind of suffering, we can
refrain from that. Further, they said that, the real nature of
the ‘self’ is bliss, eternal and possesses pure consciousness; that is Purusa. One should understand this Purusa and henceforth,
can make a difference the Purusa from Prakruti. The second point asmita is wrongly identifying
Purusa and Prakruti and further, bringing them in an equal platform. Asmita, what happens… Accordingly to Yoga philosophy, they said
that, in case of asmita, we all, the human beings, having self, having modification of
citta in all the times, we think that, Purusa and Prakruti both are responsible for creating
the different objects in this earth. And matter also, matter also some part of
find in our body. See, we are all human beings or animals, having
life in this earth as a body that is a part of matter. And this life is from Purusa. Many people do not may able to discriminate,
what is the matter, which part of body or which part of elements from a earthly life,
it comes from matter and which part of earthly life comes from Purusa. Due to the misunderstanding of this Purusa
Prakruti, many people claim or many jiva claims that, Purusa Prakruti are same. Though they are eternal, they are not same. One should understand that, Prakruti is an
active, unconscious or jada and, and a material cause for all productions; however, Purusa
is a pure consciousness and active. As a result, you find different objects, both
animate and inanimate in this earth. Because of their closeness we find, because
of that closeness we find different objects, both animate and inanimate in this earth. And one should know that, therefore, they
should know that, what is Purusa and how it different from Prakruti. This knowledge one must have and a self must
have, so that, the citta should not be found in a disturbance form. It should be find in a tranquility. At least the citta can be controlled. Now, further they said that, raga is the craving
to get worldly pleasure like power and money. Once you have angerness, that means, you are
hankering or you try to get much money or much power or much pleasure in this life and
one should not do that. And how, one should control from this by doing
some kind of practice or yoga. So, therefore, they prescribe some kind of
yoga; that we will be going to discuss in the next class. What kind of yoga one should do, so that,
he or she can refrain from all these raga, which we will be really tempt us to earn more
money or you know, chase behind, chase to receive much power, so that, we can do many
actions with our all ego. Further they said dwesa; that means, a desire. Dwesa is anger in the means of suffering;
that means, if you think that, you are suffering; again you say that, why I am suffering. Based on your suffering, you feel another
suffering. Because, by searching out why are you suffering,
you get further anger. So, first some disturbances happened with
you; again you think that, why such, all these disturbance happening to me; how I am treating
as bad, though I am not doing any bad actions. By thinking of this, that means, somebody
suffers and by thinking of that suffering, that why at all I am suffering, get demotivated;
they are also is known as dwesa and this can also be eradicated, if somebody understand,
how the suffering can be, can be removed from all, by practicing some of the yoga. Though there are different kind of suffering,
by practicing yoga, this can be controlled; this can be instructed properly, so that,
we human beings, the earthly life human beings can be detached from suffering and klesas. So, the last point, they said that, that abhinivesa
is the fear of death which finds among all living beings in this earth. What it means that, we all living beings,
we think that, we have unlimited life; we never realize that, we have a limited life
and this life is given by Purusa and is derived from Purusa and matter. Once the body perishes, the life goes away. We never know that. We think that, at best we can enjoy the whole
life and the life will be eternal. Therefore, in the next birth also we can enjoy
our life. And this is the cause we also suffer. That is known as abhinivesa, saying that fear
of death; anytime, you think something about this, you think that, ‘oh, my God, I will
die; if I do that, I will die’, but which is not the case. Even to think of your death, it is also a
one of the cause responsible for suffering; that means, suppose, you are living in a happy
life; again you think that, if you go somewhere, if you do some action, then, again you will
die. In other words, you think that, after sometime
you will die. Therefore, again you suffer. You think that, what action I should do, at
the which movement, how you should be rich, how you should enjoy much pleasure, all these. Therefore, again the suffering starts. Because of the death, the nearness of death,
you think immediately and try to do many actions in between, in a very limited period. And henceforth, your activity engaged in a
different action, which was not expected. Therefore, suffering continues. So, in this way Yoga philosophy prescribes
that, one can control from all these sufferings. Thank you. And the next class, we discuss, what are the
yoga practices one must do to detach or to refrain from all the suffering. Thank you.